Process Innovation Patent Dataset following Bena and Simintzi (2023)

This dataset provides an updated data series for process innovation claims for all patents granted by the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) between 1976 and June 2021 following the methodology of Bena and Simintzi (2023): “Machines Could Not Compete with Chinese Labor. Evidence from U.S. Firms’ Innovation,” available at

Data description:

File “process20211101.csv” includes the following variables:

Variable name Definition
nr_pt Patent number
date_app Filing date of patent application (yyyy-mm-dd)
date_grant Date the patent was granted (yyyy-mm-dd)
cl_N Number of claims per patent
cl_process_N Number of process claims per patent


Please contact Jan Bena ( or Elena Simintzi ( for any questions regarding the data.

Share of process innovation

Share of process innovation by sections of the Cooperative Patent Classification